Gillius's Programming

Appendix B -- Ios Manipulators Used with << Operator

These manipulators are used with cout along with the rest of the output varaibles. For example
cout << endl;
ends the line, can be used even after many other outputs
(cout << "Hi!" << endl;)

Manipulator Purpose
ws Turn on whitespace skipping on input
dec convert next var to decimal
oct to octal
hex to hexadecimal
endl ends the line (same as \n)
ends insert NULL character
flush updates monitor
lock lock file handle
unlock unlock file handle

A short explanation of flush: cout.flush() and cout << flush do the same thing. On some compilers, the output is "line buffered," which means nothing is displayed until an endl or flush is reached -- this is to increase text speed. If output needs to be displayed without ending the line, use << flush or cout.flush() command.